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06 Next Generation Essay: The Evolving Theological Emphasis of Hillsong Worship (1996–2007)

Tanya Riches

Ph.D. Candidate

Fuller Seminary

Even if not attending Sydney’s largest Pentecostal congregation between 1996 and 2006, most Pentecostal/charismatic Christians would recognise some or even many song titles published by Hillsong Music Australia (HMA) during this time. In 2000, the organisational rebranding of two large independent Australian congregations (Hills Christian Life Centre and Sydney Christian Life Centre) into Hillsong Church reflected the unique success of this music publisher’s expansion. Senior Pastors Brian and Bobbie Houston currently oversee nine international campuses. The Hillsong name associated with at least two generations of church rock bands (including "Hillsong Live" and "United".1 1996 to 2007) through what was arguably Hillsong’s period of greatest change. In a single decade the church and its’ associated music operation grew exponentially, from a backyard outfit in Sydney’s Hills District into a multi-million dollar industry. These eleven years spanned the employment of Hillsong’s most famous worship pastor, Darlene Zschech, and two interim worship music leaders, Donna Crouch and Phillip Dooley. Zschech’s resignation as worship pastor of Hillsong Church in early 2007 acts as a logical endpoint from which to reflect and acknowledge her achievements in this role, with a staggering amount of chart-topping product – more than twenty CDs, and twelve live VHS and DVD recordings added to HMA’s anthology. Representing a defined "era" of Hillsong music, these songs permeated the liturgy of many contemporary churches. While HMA’s 1996 recording showcases Zschech dancing to show-stopping black gospel tune ‘God is In The House’, and belting out the sweet ballad ‘Potter’s Hand’, this album also marked the introduction and increasing involvement of a younger generation of musicians. This inclusion and training of younger musicians and songwriters could arguably be considered Zschech’s greatest achievement. The deliberate adjustment of personnel, repertoire and product contributed to the longevity of this church music publisher, leading to the rejuvenated musical identity it enjoys today (under Joel Houston as Creative Director). Songs written during these eleven years unified Hillsong Generations - the tunes to which Baby Boomers made the kids’ lunches; anthems to which Gen X swayed with arms lifted high at stadium rock concerts, and songs which encapsulate Gen Y’s Christian childhood memories.

Hillsong Church currently attracts an estimated 21,000 members internationally, with its operational base located in Sydney’s Hills District.2 Pioneered in 1989, the church is an independent member church of the Australian Christian Churches (ACC)3 denomination. It began in Baulkham Hills Highschool, subsequently converting a warehouse into auditorium and office space. In the mid-1990s, the church hired a facility known as ‘The Hills Entertainment Centre’, before in 2000 purchasing property in nearby Norwest Business Park, where it constructed a purpose-built 1000-seat auditorium. An additional 3,500-seat auditorium was opened by Australian Prime Minister John Howard in 2002.4 Along with its’ exponential growth, Hillsong Church has encountered opposition, mainly with regard to its organisational structures and business ethos. Senior Pastor Brian Houston comments in interview:

I think the idea of a church being big and successful and effective threatens some people. And there are certain people who point at motives and try to make them shallow or try to marginalize our motives.5

And while it is true that this Pentecostal church is occasionally besieged by Sydney’s influential secular media (and some religious organisations, such as Sydney Anglican media), for many, Hillsong Church is all but invisible apart from its’ music. American hymnologist Michael Hawn states, "The music of Hillsong is undoubtedly the best-known church music export from Australia to the world,"6 and yet "… for classically trained church musicians and traditional hymn lovers, Hillsong is like the proverbial elephant in the room apparent to all, but totally ignored or dismissed."7

This paper emerged in the context of research for an MPhil thesis, aiming to contribute towards understanding between Christians of diverse liturgical styles. The author noted that often—even among performers presenting at Christian music events and festivals—basic understanding was lacking. Not only is liturgical style acknowledged as a key contributor to church splits, full-scale "worship wars" are observed in North America and across the world. How we gather around Christ’s name seems overall to be a dividing rather than unifying issue. For most people, reaction to the ‘other’ seems to begin with criticism rather than grace, suggesting the need for research to examine the strengths of the ways other Christians worship, assisting informed dialogue between worshippers. Also, as a new millennium unfolds it is important to reflect upon current liturgical models, examining them carefully for eternal truths that must be stewarded in the midst of the changing ‘contemporary’. In the context of a relative lack of informed writing on Pentecostal worship, its’ aims and practices, the need for foundational works in this area was clear, particularly regarding recent Australian Pentecostal worship history and "the Hillsong story".8 And so, the author found herself dusting off her old recordings, recovering her lime green choir shirt from the cupboard and singing herself through her own experiences of the 1990s as a member of Hillsong’s church worship team.9

A Framework for Liturgical Discussion

In constructing a framework to begin discussion on liturgical music, it is necessary to acknowledge the wide chasms that divide Christians on this subject. Catholic liturgist Gerard Moore’s article entitled ‘Appreciating Worship in All Its’ Variety’ (The Australian Journal of Liturgy) acknowledges the contribution of Hillsong and other Pentecostal churches towards contemporary worship practice.10 Moore analyzes Sydney’s liturgical landscape under three main paradigms: ‘experience’, ‘teaching’ and ‘ritual’. While arguably a fourth, "emergent" paradigm could be added, recognition of these paradigms is fundamental to any useful conversation on worship. Moore establishes three necessary elements required for worship. The Bible (i.e. the teaching and informing function of the Word) is crucial in order to attain truthful worship in a way that engages the Spirit, allowing for an experience of the Holy. Yet inevitably, no matter how informal, every worship service is also "… governed by the rules of ritual performance". Moore explains:

What is important is that all three, as essential ingredients of every act of worship, are present and operative in each worshipper. Yet it seems that we do not and indeed cannot approach worship from the standpoint of all three. Rather, and this is the crux of the issue, we tend to reflect upon liturgy using one of the three as the primary lens or horizon through which we view the other two.11

He considers that, "… a balance between all three is probably unattainable and even unwanted. There can be only one primary lens, nevertheless an integrated approach is necessary".12

In contrast to those whose "first movement is through teaching and ritual",13 however, for Pentecostals their first movement is an ‘experiential’ paradigm, music:

… enabled them to achieve what was for them the key ingredient of good worship, an experience of the freedom of the Spirit. All other aspects of the service, then, were understood through the lens of this type of experience, and their success or otherwise.14

Borrowing heavily from American Pentecostal ritologist Daniel Albrecht’s integration of his Pentecostal faith and heritage in the book Rites of the Spirit,15 this study of HMA text will seek to be based in, and representative of the unique nuances of an experiential paradigm.

Research Questions

Three main elements of HMA’s resource are integral to understanding Hillsong’s contribution to contemporary worship: its theological emphasis, its musical repertoire and performance, and its music business practice. Development in these areas can be considered of key interest to understanding Hillsong and its continued success. Within the constraints of this article, the first element only - theological emphasis - will be examined as a case study applied to the lyric (or text) of the songs published by HMA (as ‘contemporary worship text’). The inquiry may be understood through three questions:

1. What degree of consistency in textual style and content can be seen in the text of HMA music between 1996 and 2007?

2. What changes in theological emphasis and style are evident?

3. What influences may be identified behind these changes?

The following discussion will focus upon contemporary worship text as an introduction to this area.

The Importance of Lyric or Text

Text is a particularly important element of any Christian music. For some authors, text is the primary feature of the worship song genre. According to Steve Turner "… it [contemporary Christian music] is the only musical category recognised in the record industry that is defined entirely by lyrical content".16 Pecklers even considers congregational music the first vehicle of theology within a service, as "… the Church expresses what it believes in worship even before these beliefs are studied or analyzed".17 The order of most liturgies means that music usually precedes any exposition of the Bible or preaching, and is therefore the first impression a visitor has of a church’s beliefs. While hymns place priority upon historicity (emphasizing tradition and identity), contemporary choruses place priority upon present meaning, evaluated most effectively through the combination of individual responses. (However, this divide is not a complete polarisation, as HMA does record adaptations of hymns and traditional text). On the other hand, authors such as Dawn18 and Peterson critique contemporary worship, citing theological inadequacy and weak textual features.19

Such music plays a particularly important role in most Pentecostal traditions, shaping the public confession of beliefs, and creating a common narrative sung by church members. As Scott Ellington explains:

It has been widely argued in emerging Pentecostal theology that Pentecostalism is an orally-based, narratively-expressed tradition, and that testimonies of what God has done in the life of the individual believer and the local community of faith form an integral part of Pentecostal worship and faith.20

Unlike the lyric of secular albums or even of Christian artists, HMA text represents beliefs and values sung by Hillsong’s entire community. While songs both represent and reinforce the theological views of the church worship text is not intended to represent the entire systematic theology of the church, but to encourage and challenge believers with Spirit-inspired meditations pertinent to their context. Instated as teaching pastors of Hillsong Church with the acquisition of the City campus in 2000, Robert and Amanda Fergusson (among other functions) provide editorial oversight for songtext. Believing the distinctive of a worship chorus is the exposition of only one theme, Amanda advocates efficiency with words asking, "If one syllable will do then why use two?"21 Accepting a range of contemporary styles, she recommends those that appeal to the congregation.22 The congregation actively assesses each song as it is presented, with their responses gauged as indicative of their views. Joel Houston asserts: "… Ultimately, the song is decided on by the crowd. If people sing it, it's good. If it doesn't go over well with them, then it's not. It's the congregation who decides".23 Songs deemed popular with the congregation are recorded, others are excluded after trial.24 Text is thus also portrayed as a measure of the congregation’s maturity. "… Every time we record a live album", Zschech comments, "it’s a magnificent night. It’s a snapshot of twelve months growth in the heart of a local church."25 More realistically, however, songs reaching the congregation have already been selected from the large number submitted). By virtue of inclusion, published songs represent a decision by Hillsong leadership that these are the best songs produced within that year, and worthwhile commending to other churches. Songtext is thus a reflection of the generally accepted understandings of both Hillsong’s leadership and congregation at that time.

Rather than articles, books or denominational papers, in an experiential worship paradigm, liturgy provides space for learning, discussion and revision of beliefs. As Peter Althouse comments:

Experience as a form of encounter is recognized for its characteristics as constructed, intentional, derivative, and dialectical ... It enters as a moment of discontinuity into a larger, already established context. It is interruptive since, if it were simply continuous with what is already operative, it would not need to be adverted to precisely as "experience." … Thus, the insertion invites consideration, discussion, revision, change.26

This implies that changes within HMA text over this period are important and meaningful—indeed, as Mark Evans notes, text analysis only adequate within a church’s musical and social context. As changes to text are representative of developments in theological emphasis, the liturgy as a whole will now be examined.

The Hillsong Liturgy

Hillsong’s service is comprised of a formulaic pattern where spontaneity is restrained to musical spaces. Most Australian Pentecostals are familiar with the "Hillsong experience", beginning in the car-park with smiling volunteers in traffic vests, directing cars.27 Most Hillsong music is written for their services, combining tempo and other musical features to achieve community worship effects. Musical "praise and worship" usually consists of two fast and two slow songs, and almost always lasts for twenty minutes. Previous analyses indicate that the majority of HMA songs are written in 4/4 time signature, with a small number of 3/4 and 6/8 time signatures,28 providing four categories of tempo to serve the organisational elements of the Hillsong service ( Figure 1):

Figure 1: Tempo Categories

200 ….…………… 130 ………….……… 99….……………… 80………… 55

| Up-Tempo Praise | Mid-Tempo Praise | Anthemic Worship | Slow Worship |

"Up-tempo praise" songs open the service, lifting the faith level and expectation of the congregation through sung statements about God and His church. Zschech explains, "A shout is prophetic. It is faith building … it is calling things that are not as though they were. It is atmosphere changing".29 "Mid-tempo praise" often facilitates dancing, with the Hillsong congregation ‘moshing’ and/or swaying. "Anthemic Worship" assists the congregation declare attributes of God’s character and Will. Finally, "Slow worship"—inclusive of reflective instrumental elements—encourages reflection, and creates space for the Spirit to speak through direct communication. Anthemic Worship, or sometimes "Praise" end the section. Songs flow between keychanges, causing minimal distraction to the congregation, as the band moves seamlessly through musical interludes and the congregation vocalizes their own prayers and praises to God, singing or speaking quietly in tongues (glossolalia). Tongues and interpretation are rarely amplified: newcomers are unlikely to be aware of it happening among the congregation. At the conclusion of the 40-minute message, a call for salvation is given, often incorporating music. Following this, new converts are led out of the service to be handed Bibles and information about the church, while an MC (not the preacher) closes the service and the band reprise of one of the songs.

Occasionally a theme reflecting an attribute of the Christian life— "strength", "unity", or "hope"— is used as a focus for congregational reflection.30 Apart from the seasons of Christmas and Easter, traditional liturgical seasons receive no attention. Instead the year is punctuated by various annual events and conferences, their preparation and advertising. The "Christmas Spectacular", an amateur dramatic show, tours Hillsong campuses through multiple performances. This is not a traditional nativity play, but an entertaining reframing of the Christmas message for the nonchurched community. Special ‘Anointing’ and ‘Water Baptism’ services see believers immersed in water or "anointed" with a small amount of oil. When Spirit Baptism is the focus, prayer for respondents to receive tongues (glossolalia, as per Acts 2) as a marker of the infilling of the Spirit is included as an element. Each HB albums included in this study was recorded at a free event in Sydney, in February or March. The live crowd, staging, and visual performance become part of the DVD product, while the music is overdubbed and reproduced as both CD and DVD, released to massed crowds on the first night of the Hillsong Conference in July. The sales opportunity provided by the July conference provides the end date for recording, mixing, mastering and production of its annual album. The conference itself, nevertheless, aims at seeking unity among churches of like mind (particularly those within the ACC movement) rather than about album launch and sales.31 Conference advertising vigorously emphasizes well-known international Christian speakers and musicians rather than the musical product as such.

In contrast to HB’s events, only ‘youth’ aged 12–25 are included in UB music recordings, providing both ministry resource and training for Hillsong’s young songwriters and artists. Hillsong’s largest department follows a similar annual calendar to the church. Week-long January youth camps are often held at a beach venue, while during the July general Conference Hillsong (JAM) Youth conference is held. A separate day program includes worship led by UB, with the two conferences combining at night. UB’s 2007 album recording— which took place in a studio— demonstrated the greater flexibility of the youth product compared to HB’s live recordings. Unlike HB recordings, UB DVDs are not sold: instead, footage is often included as a bonus to the CD. UB’s marketing is also more internet-savvy than HB, with All of The Above—assisted by Joel Houston’s blog at www.youth.hillsong.com—becoming the second most downloaded album on ITunes.32 No UB album was recorded in 2003, the only exception to HMA’s annual releases from both bands. Available literature relating to this topic will now be explored.

Literature Review

Shane Clifton (An Analysis of the Developing Ecclesiology of the Assemblies of God in Australia) notes the general lack of academic publications from Australian Pentecostals.33 This has left evangelical scholar Mark Evans’ doctoral thesis (Secularising the Sacred) as foundational in the area: it forms the basis of analysis for this work.34 In Rites in the Spirit, Ritologist Daniel Albrecht examines the experiential paradigm of Pentecostal worship, outlining the purpose of songs in facilitating a corporate experience for the congregation. Hillsong has also published a number of popular book titles to assist those seeking to replicate its structures and styles. Amanda Fergusson’s book The Songs of Heaven: Writing Songs for Contemporary Worship,35 seeks to address songtext. Including interviews with published HMA songwriters, it provides insight into their musical aims and methodology. In reviewing the relevant literature, four recurring themes may be isolated: Trinitarian Address, Testimony, Love, and Expected Transformations in Worship. These four areas—which form the basis for the methodology of this paper—will now be explored.

Trinitarian Address

Evans uses the category ‘Address’ to locate Trinitarian understandings (important for evangelical traditions) in liturgical practice. He notes the importance of the ‘address’ of God (or lack thereof) in analysis of HMA songtext, tracking the words Jesus/God/Spirit and Lord in text published between 1992 and 1999. He demonstrates high usage of the address "Lord" in Hillsong lyrics during the Bullock period (prior to the present study period) and occasions in the repertoire where the Godhead is not addressed at all but implied.36 As James Torrance notes, Christian worship for evangelicals constitutes " … our participation through the Spirit in the Son’s communion with the Father, in his vicarious life of worship and intercession".37 All three persons of the Trinity are considered distinct but equal in the ACC’s theology.38 As Gordon Fee explains:

... our worship is as Trinitarian as our experience of God and our theology. Obviously, it is the presence of the Spirit among us as we gather in Christ's name that makes it so.39

As Lim,40 McClung41 and Chant note,42 Paul also attributes the Spirit as the bestower of charismata (spiritual gifts, 1 Corinthians 12). The importance of Trinitarian address within the literature is clear.

Emotionalism, Love and Feminisation

Discussion regarding the nature of the relationship between the Trinity and the worshipper features is also notable in the literature. Authors such as Evans and Chant are critical of so-called "Intimacy/Relational" songs, which he finds prevalent in Pentecostal worship:

These songs have the power to call upon sentimentality and emotionalism without directing the participant's gaze toward God. They also have the power to manipulate the emotions of participants within the gathering, making them feel as though they are experiencing something they are not.43

He terms this sentimentality "Feminisation":

Many males confirmed a sense of isolation or inadequacy being created in their worship due to this "gendering" of the music. Colloquially within the Church, songs of this ilk are known as "Jesus is my girlfriend" songs.44

In contrast to Evans, however, Shepherd believes all musicology is thrown out of balance by inherent societal gendering, and thus is inevitable in our discussion of music:

… the relational and emotional is downgraded to a second-class status—something vaguely undesirable and intimately associated with women—to be controlled by superior, "rational" men.45

Questions must be raised as to whether descriptors such as "Feminisation" degrade women’s contribution to worship or reinscribes unhelpful gender types.46 While most church environments are identified by a degree of patriarchal leadership and parochial liturgical styles, Pentecostal and Charismatic movements, through pioneers such as Sarah Jane Lancaster, demonstrate an understanding of God’s desire for women to have equal place with men in God’s kingdom following Pentecost.47 Verses such as Acts 2:17 point to the redress of earthly inequalities are through the outpouring of the Spirit48—and do not seek to denigrate or lower the feminine under the masculine. Given the fact that a high percentage of ’sentimental’ HMA songs are written and performed by males, Evans’ description (echoed by Barry Chant)49 of male isolation through worship text is difficult to comprehend.50

The love relationship between God and worshipper is the ’target’ of emotion in worship. Former Hillsong member Tanya Levin claims confusion exists regarding the role of love and romance in Pentecostal text:

Having a love affair with Jesus is an established expectation.… [But] I don't want to date Jesus. I don't think that was the idea. All that "Jesus is my boyfriend" music makes me nauseous.... I continue to find this whole thing strange.51

By way of contrast, Sydney Anglican director of EMU music, Phillip Percival, considers emotion crucial in worship:

When we suppress emotion in church we train ourselves to lack excitement in the rest of our Christian lives … Singing is the obvious place to show authentic and appropriate emotion in response to the gospel of grace – and it is this same response of gratitude that should mark the whole of our lives as his servants.52

The relationship of love and place of emotion can be seen to be of importance within worship literature, and features in the methodology below.

Testimony

The casual vernacular language of contemporary worship text, and its emphasis on the "I", is criticised heavily by theologians such as Brian McLaren53 and musicians such as Matthew Ward,54 who identify in the latter evidence of Western individualism. Philip Percival criticises the replacement of biblical narrative by personal testimony, exhorting contemporary songwriters to write material which reflects the fact " … that song is God’s gift to his church to soak up the Word of Christ, and to respond authentically and emotionally to that Word."55 By way of contrast, Evans defends the use of the personal pronoun, citing its use by the psalmists, hymn writers such as Isaac Watts, and the central role of testimony. Over 60% of contemporary worship songs are written in the first person, with only 5% using plural pronoun "we".56 Clifton disagrees that biblical text is absent in Pentecostal liturgy, arguing for consideration of a particular hermeneutic:

Pentecostals posit a hermeneutical spiral, which moves from the experience of the Spirit in the community of faith, to the text of scripture, and back again, to the experience of the Spirit in the community of faith.58

In Pentecostal songs, symbolic narratives of conversion, water baptism, healing and other experiences simultaneously cultivate a backward-looking thankfulness and a forward-looking desire.59 Personal testimony holds a fundamental place in Pentecostal worship, as noted by Althouse,60 Lawless,61 Jenning,62 and Anderson.63 Testimonial is also conducive to fostering both revival and revivalism (Clifton).64

This paper will identify personal pronouns to identify whether Hillsong holds to an individualistic view of worship, and as a marker for the presence of ‘testimony’.

Expected Transformations (or Themes in Pentecostal Music)

One of the most significant areas of discussion in the literature regards the categorisation of themes for church choruses. Evans, citing Dawn, constructs eleven content-based categories of song text.65 Application of Evan’s categories to Pentecostal songtext, however, is not only difficult, but arguably inappropriate in gauging the contribution of Pentecostal contemporary music which is, as Moore outlines, operates from an experiential rather than teaching focus.66 Albrecht’s adopts a different approach, using participant-observation and interviews to identify commonalities in the rites of three North-American Pentecostal churches.67 This results in his seven "modes of sensibility", that extend Moore’s study. Describing these modes as "… embodied attitudes, sensibilities, affections with which ritualists perform and experience ritual",68 he considers these methods by which Pentecostals engage in the liturgy, and keys to understanding Pentecostal music. These "modes" generally flow in rough order within the worship service.

The first mode, termed ‘Celebration’ "… takes root in the action and attitude of play",69 accompanied with "expressiveness" and "spontaneity"".70 This is usually facilitated in Pentecostal services through fast songs and physical participation such as clapping, dancing, and joyful smiling - enacted to appropriate the joy found in Christ. The second mode Albrecht names ‘Transcendental Efficacy’, which "… refers to an attitude of "… pragmatic ritual work","… particularly in relationship to a trans-reality [i.e. God] to produce an effect".71 Albrecht states:

When Pentecostals pray in this mode they expect an answer. Unlike the sensibility of celebration that may freely play, enjoying and experiencing the meaning of symbols, the mode of efficacy employs the symbols, declaring how things work by working them. The mode of efficacy reveals an attitude that is more concerned with consequence than meaning.72

The third mode (‘Contemplation’) involves "… deep receptivity and openness to God",73 mostly seen during the slower songs. Of this mode Albrecht states:

While the mode of celebration actively plays and the mode of transcendental efficacy engages in ritual work toward its pragmatic goal, the contemplative mode attentively waits. The "tarry until" attitude of the Pentecostal mode of contemplation generally holds sway, that is … the aware congregation participates in the understanding that ultimately it seeks the action and presence of the other, the one that cannot be controlled.74

The fourth ‘Penitent’ mode entails "… contrition, repentance, remorse, sorrow, lamenting or grieving".75 While repentance is facilitated in Hillsong’s public altar calls, Narelle Melton writes:

Within the Australian context there has been little evaluation of the early Australian Pentecostal use of lament. As such it is unknown whether the practice of lament has been lost progressively, … or if it was ever utilized within Australian Pentecostalism.76

The fifth mode, ‘Transcendental Ecstasy’ occurs when "… ritualists believe they are having an experience, performing rites or manifesting behaviour that is directly influenced by their God."77 These behaviours may or may not be obvious to the observer, and particular manifestations vary between congregations. However, ultimately the mode represents the Pentecostal desire to be open to the Spirit’s direction in worship.78

The sixth mode (‘Improvisational’) involves "… cultivating or inventing rites", allowing for spontaneous innovation (a feature of Pentecostal music also noted by Evans).79 The direction of the first six modes by a leader/s is in itself the seventh mode. Albrecht explains that "… the empowered leader directs, even controls, liturgical forms dominated by this sensibility".80 Whether this is actually a ‘mode’ is questionable, but it does serve to explain Moore’s distinction between the realities of participant and leader.81 These modes are facilitated primarily through the use of musical features such as tempo, and/or dynamic, but also through text.

Rather than governing content, these modes allow for movement and progression in the experience of worship, and serve to provide a basis for analysing intentions behind Pentecostal songs, and their contribution towards experiential liturgy. Combined with Evans’ approach, Albrecht’s modes provide phenomenological content to disconnected categories. Text plays a crucial role in teaching and reinforcing expectations placed upon worship by the congregation, as noted by Albrecht,82 Evans83 and Dawn.84 The mode of Transcendental Efficacy or "pragmatic ritual work" holds particular relevance to the study of categorisation of text, as Pentecostal congregations present their expected transformations to God in song form, both in faith/belief they will occur (Transcendental Ecstacy), but also as a commitment towards their occurrence where possible (Transcendental Efficacy). As divine passive transformation is difficult to ascertain, the second mode forms a basis for understanding the underlying purpose of worship for Pentecostals. Worship, especially through song text, provides space for the individual to actively transform towards God’s immutable character, following repentance.85-86 Adapting Evans’ methodology, then, we can identify eight Pentecostal Expected Transformations:87 Anointing, Personal Development, Revival, Evangelism, Supernatural Empowerment, Prosperity, Social Transformation and Presence in Suffering. These Expected Transformations will now be explored.

Evans presents the theme ‘Anointing’ as particularly relevant to songs sourced from Sydney’s large Pentecostal congregations including HSA and Christian City Church (CCC) Oxford Falls. Anointing as a theological precept is absent from Clifton’s ecclesiology, and the term rarely appears in HMA text. ‘Revival’, however, does feature as a corporate expectation (see Clifton, above).88 Expectation, fostered by testimonies and stories, is key in maintaining ‘revival’ as a desire and focus of the congregation.89 By way of contrast, Evans’ ‘Personal Development’ category represents the range of individual outcomes considered to result in Christian maturity—as evidenced in such attributes as a moral lifestyle (particularly sexuality, a positive attitude etc).90 This reveals Pentecostalism’s Holiness origins, noted by many authors including Matzerath91 and Anderson.92

A third Pentecostal Expected Transformation (‘Evangelism’) is noted by Silvia Giagnoni as a stated goal for many Christian musicians.93 Chant laments the replacement of ’the great evangelist’ of postwar neo-Evangelicalism (e.g. Billy Graham) with modern musicians.94 Journalists including Power,95 Zinchini96 and Zwartz97 acknowledge the contribution of music to Hillsong’s evangelistic expansion. Historically, moreover, the ACC emphasised a fourth Transcendental Efficacy, ‘Supernatural Empowerment’, with miracles including healing sought during the liturgy.98 Towns notes this as a particular role of the Spirit’s at Good News Hall in 1908 under Sarah Jane Lancaster’s ministry (including, tongues, prophecy, tarrying, laying on of hands, anointing, dancing, miracles, exorcism, visions etc):99 With "power from on high" (Acts 1:8) given to the disciples through baptism in the Spirit, Pentecostal expectation of the miraculous is foundational and ongoing. Hillsong’s emphasis on ‘Prosperity’ (greatly influenced by Korean Pastor Yongi Cho) is in constant tension with this older tradition.100, 101, 102 While North American emphasis upon the Second Coming is not substantiated in the text, a "wealth gospel" has become synonymous with Hillsong’s public persona.103

This development leads to a relatively new Expected Transformation: ‘Social Transformation’ (termed "Social Justice" by Hillsong members): the progression from a belief in material prosperity into church-based redress of global economic inequality.104 (By way of contrast, Anderson criticizes Assemblies of God congregations in North America for rejection of a social gospel).105 Catholic Theologian Marva Dawn promotes another development beyond prosperity theology—an inspired understanding of God’s presence in our pain, trial or suffering that features heavily in both the literature and HMA text. Wheelchair-bound, Dawn asks:

How does our worship deal with the intensity and scope of suffering? Do we proclaim true hope, universally accessible? Are we equipped by our worship to work to ease suffering and to build peace and justice in the world? Or do we merely provide a private happiness, a cosy comfortable-ness in our own safe sanctuaries?106

Dawn advocates worship text that prioritises the spiritual above the material, with an expectation that worship is a reminder of God’s presence in our suffering rather than a vehicle for the abolition of it. Having discussed pertinent literature, the scope and methodology of the study will now be examined below.

Scope of The Study

Across the eleven-year period (1996 – 2007), HMA released twenty albums, variously by the Hillsong Live Band (HB) and United Band (UB). In order to deal with this large amount of text and music, three phases are used. During Phase One (1996 – 1998), HB releases represented the primary music product of the church. With the departure of worship pastor and songwriter Geoff Bullock, Donna Crouch led until Darlene Zschech was appointed as worship pastor. Phase Two (1999 – 2003) is marked by a move to the production of two annual HMA live worship products, the establishment of the UB and continuation of HB releases. Other developments included the employment of Reuben Morgan as Youth Music Director (2000), the acquisition of the City Campus, the planting and growth of the London Campus (2002). In Phase Three (2004- 2007) Reuben Morgan’s resigned from UB (2004) to focus on HB recordings and events, Joel Houston was appointed as UB leader (2004), Darlene Zschech’s resigned as Worship Pastor of HB (2006), followed by the appointment in 2008 of Joel Houston and Reuben Morgan to the leadership of the creative department.107

Methodology: Quantitative Measurements

Between 1996 and 2007, HMA’s HB and UB releases featured 281 songtexts. Qualitative and quantitative analysis on these texts was performed in a spreadsheet, using an adapted Evans methodology.108 Text categories were analyzed for evidence of similarity and change across the three phases of the study period, arranged around the four areas identified in the literature review.

Table 1: Categories for Text Analysis

1. Number of Words

5. Use of word "Love": Context of use of word love.

2. Address - Point of View (1st/2nd/3rd Person)

6. Testimony (Evidence of conversion, water or Spirit baptism testimonials)

3. Trinitarian Perceptions: Instances of the words Jesus/Christ, Spirit, God/Father, Lord

7. Expected Transformation: (Personal Development, Revival, Evangelism, Supernatural Empowerment, Prosperity, Social Transformation and Presence in Suffering)

4. Other names addressing God

Category 1 ("Number of Words") is useful in terms of assessing published text, but not in terms of actual length of songs (time it takes to sing it) or musical ease/difficulty. The value placed on spontaneity at Hillsong108 means that the chorus is usually repeated multiple times. Dai Griffiths’ "Verbal space" or text rhythmic patterns could be considered a better indicator, but is beyond the scope of this study.109 "Trinitarian perceptions" were analysed through recording names used for God, such as "God/Father", "Jesus/Christ", "Spirit" or "Lord". Presence of and context of the word "love" was listed (Category 5) e.g. ‘The Father’s love for us’. "Testimony" was tracked using semantic references to spiritual experiences, such as conversion, water baptism, and Spirit baptism. "Expected Transformation" evaluates the prevalence and accuracy of the eight expected Pentecostal transformations discussed above: "Personal Development", "Supernatural Empowerment", "Evangelism" "Prosperity", "Presence in Suffering", "Revival" and "Social Transformation" (see Table 1).110 Evans’ theme "Anointing" was discarded from the methodology after only one reference was found within HMA text.

Qualitative aspects of text highlighted by Fergusson are examined below including rhyme scheme (perfect rhyme, assonance and consonance, parallel constructions), rhyming patterns and word imagery.111

Research Findings: General Features of Text

Table 2: Summary of HMA Releases

PHASE ONE

(1996 – 1998)

PHASE TWO

(1999 – 2003)

PHASE THREE

(2004 – 2007)

Number of Songs

44

99

138

Number of Albums

3

8

9

Number of Bands

1

2

2

Number of Writers

12

29

38

Average Word Count

99

89

98.6

A large increase of published songs occurred with the inclusion of UB products from 1999, with another increase of HMA songs in Phase Three. While ‘wordiness’ is often informally seen as a ‘youth’ phenomenon, word count dropped on average by ten words in Phase Two, but returned to a relative average. Phase Three’s highest word counts were contained in UB’s All Of The Above (2007) release, where four songs exceed 190 words. No songs reached this amount in preceding years, resulting from UB’s adoption of more secular song forms in which small chorus and bridge variations added to word count. UB’s music represented a shift from church resource to radio singles. Two strophic hymn-like verses can be seen during Phase One, "Jesus What a Beautiful Name" (1996) and "So You Would Come" (1997): none occur after this time.

References to the "Holy Ghost" rather than "Holy Spirit" show the influence of American black gospel style upon this Australian church. "Steppin’ Out" (1996) shows HB’s characteristically wordy verses in Phase One, as well as shortened terms, both also characteristic of black gospel:

We’re a generation saved by grace and set apart to change this land

We’re standing strong, pressing on, we know in Jesus Christ we can

The church of God is growing every day

We’re taking ground, and we are steppin’ out.112

The song "I Know It" (1997) also displays gospel colloquialisms and informal language.113

In Phase Two, UB albums contribute to the development in HMA’s language and style. Attempting move beyond the musical limitations of their congregation, UB writers contributed to song form more intricate verses mediated with two or four-line choruses (e.g "Everyday", 1999).114 Such choruses act as the repetitive "glue" between sections, and the congregation picks up the melody and, by way of frequent further performances and recordings, the verses of a song. Four or eight bar musical riffs add verbal space.

With regard to language style, Fergusson advocates the use of word images through literary features such as metaphors and simile, which also becomes very popular for UB writers in Phase Two, e.g. "Heaven" (1999):

I need Your love

Like the desert needs the rain

I need Your touch

Like the fire needs the flame.115

"Stronger Than" (2000) is another example of this.116

HMA ‘covers’ (rerecorded songs) appear on UB albums in 2001, including "All Day"117 (authored by Sampson for interdenominational ministry Youth Alive)118 and a rearrangement of the traditional hymn "Holy, Holy, Holy" (2001). 119 This demonstrated a wider genre range in comparison to HB, retaining its’ focus upon contemporary song.

During Phase One, text displays many instances of both loose and perfect rhyme, often referencing large amounts of biblical text. It is sophisticated in its construction. The song "Joy in the Holy Ghost" (1996) is an example of long meter and a perfect rhyme scheme:

The Holy Spirit fills me up A

And I need him every day B

For fire faith and confidence C

And knowing what to say B

I gave my heart and all I am D

To the one who loves me most E

We've got love grace peace and power F

And joy in the Holy Ghost. E120

The song "Can’t Stop Talking" (1997) also evidences perfect rhyme, though in couplets.121 B

Certain stylistic changes, reflecting musical changes, are seen after Phase Two. From 1999, deliberately ending with non-rhyming lines can be seen, in a move away from ‘corny’ text:

Standing tall in this wide space A

Getting lost in Your embrace A

I see a fire burning brighter C

It’s calling me to catch the flame.122 D

In this case, assonance with the vowel "a" allows the verse to complete, with underlying chords creating further resolution. From Phase Three, however, repetition replaces rhyme in HB songs, e.g. Morgan’s "You are My Strength" (2007):

You are my strength

Strength like no other

Strength like no other

Reaches to me.123

The song "Angels" (2003), shows non-rhyming verses, featuring repetition in the chorus.124

Throughout Phase Three, UB text evolves towards an arguably post-modern "linguistic fragmentation", termed by Jameson "Pastiche".125 Here, seemingly separate statements are hung together in a musical framework, the meaning often understood only within the originating community.126 Experience and emotion is prioritised above rational logic in the text, seen in "Solution" (2007):

In Your Name

There is truth where logic fails

Understanding that makes sense of our days

You are worthy.127

In this song, no rhyme scheme is discernable. Instead, musical innovation including distinctive introductions, and rhythmic drumbeats assist the congregation with text recall. Findings on Trinitarian Address as covered in the literature review will now be considered below.

Trinitarian Address

Table 3: Trinitarian Address in HMA Text

PHASE ONE

PHASE TWO

PHASE THREE

Total Spirit

11

9

7

Total Lord

20

42

56

Total Jesus

19

28

44

Total God/Father

13

24

45

During the study period, an increase in the words "Jesus/Christ" and "God/Father" was noted in the text, consistent with the increase in songs.128 By way of contrast, references to the Spirit decreased (see Table 3). Although many songs interchange multiple addresses, showing evidence of Trinitarian belief, not all HMA songs address a member of the Godhead. While some aspects of the work of the Spirit are consistent across HMA repertoire,129 perception of His role in worship changed during the years under review (see below). Throughout Phase One, 25% of songs mention the Holy Spirit, with songs such as "Let The Peace of God Reign" using direct address:

Oh Holy Spirit

Saturate my soul

Fill me now

Let Your healing power

Breathe life and make me whole.130

The song "Holy Spirit Rain Down" (1998) (made famous by American gospel singer Alvin Slaughter) is another example of this address.131

Biblical reference to the Spirit is also incorporated into the text e.g. "Joy in the Holy Ghost" (1998) citing Luke 12:11-12 "… do not worry about how you will defend yourselves … for the Holy Spirit will teach you at that time what you should say".132

However, during Phase Two, direct address to the Spirit occurs less frequently in the text. The Spirit is sometimes presented as an attribute of Christ as in "You" (2000):

Now I, I belong to You

Lord I need

Your Spirit, Your word, Your truth

Hear my cry

My deep desire

To know You more.133

By Phase Three, the Spirit’s role is yet further reduced. No song addresses or refers to the Spirit in HMA albums 2002 to 2004, or in 2006. One reference to the Spirit is found in HB’s recordings in 2005, and two in 2007. UB’s song "Fire Fall Down" (2006) is a characteristic example of song style of this third phase. Addressing Jesus, it cites his work on the cross "You bought my life".134 Following acknowledgement of the crucifixion, it refers to Jesus’ resurrection, using conversion testimony ("… now alive in me"). The second verse proclaims prosperity for the believer; "…When I spoke and confessed in You I’m blessed". These concepts build upon salvation, with the musical climax and chorus proclaiming Spirit baptism "Fire fall down". However, there is no development of the Spirit’s person beyond the metaphor of "fire" (viz. Acts 2), and no understanding of the Spirit’s ongoing role in Christian life beyond Pentecost. Other songs in this phase such as Saviour King (2007) also refer to "the Spirit of Christ",135 empty of biblical references to the Spirit’s unique role in the gospel narratives or Acts. This pneumatological regress could be considered a change in theological emphasis, and arguably a loss of Trinitarian understanding in Hillsong’s text in the years after 2002. This move towards Christology and away from Pneumatology mirrors Sydney Anglican conservative evangelical Christianity, increasing the acceptability of HMA products to non-Pentecostal Christians within the city.136 The complete absence of "the Spirit" in most years following 2000 indicates either deliberately omission, or the editing of text.

Use of the Word "Love"

Performing love towards God unites Hillsong’s congregation. As Zschech states:

We often hear the phrase "worship is a lifestyle". What does this really mean? It simply means to live a life of love. To love extravagantly. The first commandment, to love the Lord your God with all your heart with all your soul, and with all your mind means exactly that.137

During Phase One (1996–1998), the word love appears in approximately half of tracks, primarily as an immutable characteristic of God as Spirit. The song "Love of God Can Do" (1996) shows God enabling the Christian to act in love when human strength is inadequate:

He can make a way where there isn’t a way

That’s what the love of God can do".138

A paraphrase of 1 Corinthians 15 occurs in the bridge of this song:

Love is patient, love is kind

If someone else wins, love doesn’t mind

Love believes and love forgives

And God is the start of all of this.139

The perfection of God’s love (distinct from human love) is explored in "Jesus Your Loving Kindness" (1997):

Jesus Your loving-kindness

I’m so blessed by all that You’ve done

This life that You give

Your love is better than life I know it well.140

References of the word "praise" exceed "love" in this first Phase, suggesting the declaration of God’s attributes and power rather intimacy with Him. Texts in this Phase distinguish human-divine love from human-human love, using words such as "adore".141 Titles such as "My Greatest Love is You" 142 and "Love You so Much",143 draw connections between singing, praise and love. Throughout this phase many references connect love directly or indirectly to the Spirit, echoing Wesley’s description of Spirit baptism as a "heart warmed with love",144 e.g. "You Gave Me Love" (1997) sings "… You gave me a love that caused my heart to overflow".145 This reinforces desire within the congregation to experience Spirit Baptism. Reference to the Spirit’s supernatural love is not continued in the text after 1999; instead a distinct change of emphasis will be found. Phase Two (1999 – 2002) sees an increase in occurrences of the word "love" as a human emotion.

The word "worship" by this phase is almost synonymous with music and/or singing, e.g. in "Forever" (2000), "… I’ll worship at Your throne / Whisper my own love song",146 And "Dwelling Places" (1999):

From my heart a song will rise

I love you, I love you, I love you

I love you, I love you, I love you

I love you, I love you, I love you

And my heart will follow wholly after You.147

"You are Holy" (1997) also continues the notion of singing as expression of love.148

Teenage writer Marty Sampson and Joel Houston first become visible in the UB release By Your Side (1999), with "My Best Friend" (2000) - one of the first of the youth songs to cross-over to HB’s album. This song establishes what could be considered an immature or simplistic view of the human–divine relationship:

Jesus You are my best friend

And You will always be

And nothing will ever change that.149

In Phase Two the introduction of the words "want" and "need" in reference to God first occurs in title track "For This Cause" (2000) "… All I want is, All I want is You, Jesus".150 Emotionalism is redolent in the albums, despite protestations otherwise.151 UB’s influence sees faith expressed through life-long commitment, as "Jesus Lover of My Soul" (rerecorded 2001) declares:

I love You, I need You

Though my world will fall, I’ll never let you go

My Saviour, My closest Friend

I will worship You until the very end.152

This song is sung by Pentecostal worshippers as an act of dedication and continued commitment.

Phase Three (2003–2007) is marked by more Christological songwriting and the location of emotion as response to the cross, e.g. "At the Cross" (2006) which references John 4:19153 contrasting God’s love with human failure:

Oh Lord You’ve searched me

You know my way

Even when I fail You

I know You love me

I know You love me

At the cross, I bow my knee

Where Your blood was shed for me

There’s no greater love than this.154

Text continues to express devotion but emphasizes God rather than the worshipper (e.g. UB’s "Saviour King" 2007).155

During this phase, love compels the Christian to act, particularly in reversing poverty (or social justice). The believer’s love for God is connected to responsibility for the welfare of the world, reflecting the extra-curricular ministries of the team during this time. Zschech’s involvement in Australian and overseas aid increased the profile of Christian responsibility to the poor—with public campaigns for Christian child welfare ambassador group Compassion Australia156 and the initiative "Hope Rwanda". The HB title track ‘Hope’ (2003) illustrates the beginning of this change:

You are righteous

You love justice

And those who honor You will see Your face.157

Hope Rwanda’s website explains:

In April 2004 while Mark and Darlene Zschech and their family were on a missions trip to Africa, they learned the horrific recent history and current situation of the beautiful country of Rwanda and its people ... In response [they], launched Hope Rwanda: 100 Days of Hope, a global effort designed to bring hope to a nation seemingly forgotten by the world since the horrific genocide of 1994.158

UB’s song "Solution" (2007) continues the call to action in redressing poverty accompaning Christian confession (acting on behalf of God’s love):

It is not a human right

To stare not fight

While broken nations dream

… Higher than a circumstance

Your promise stands

Your love for all to see

Higher than protest line and dollar signs

Your love is all we need.159

Testimony

Presenting the narrative of salvation in song encourages non-Christians to seek a conversion experience for themselves,160 and testimonials encourage Christians (particularly from other denominations) to seek fullness in Christian life (through water and Spirit baptism).161 A summary of references to testimony in the HMA song texts throughout the study period can be seen in Table 4 (below):

Table 4: Testimony in Hillsong Text

PHASE ONE

PHASE TWO

PHASE THREE

Conversion

23

58

72

Water Baptism

0

1

0

Spirit Baptism

15

16

10

Hillsong choruses are almost always sung in the first person (either singular or plural), and testimonies of conversion appear consistently across the entire period (and in almost all songs), suggesting that the main purpose of Hillsong music is evangelistic.162 Such sung testimony of salvation may be seen in "God is In the House" (1995):

As for me, God came and found me

As for me, He took me home

As for me He gave me a family

And I’ll never walk alone. 163

"Sing of Your Great Love" (1999),164 and "Exceeding Joy" (2003) explore joy as an emotional response to the salvation experience:

I have found exceeding joy

Jesus answered when I called

This Name that has saved me

Pure love that embraced me.165

Interestingly, in contrast to overwhelming testimonies of conversion in all phases, only one account of water baptism occurs (in Morgan’s song "What The Lord Has Done In Me", 1999).166

Testimony of Spirit baptism decreases across the phases, consistent with the findings regarding Trinitarian Address (above).167 Most Hillsong services conclude with a staged public prayer or "altar call",168 an appropriation of Romans 10:9 "… if you confess with your mouth, "Jesus is Lord," and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved".169 The song "So You Would Come" (1997) was written for such a moment:

Everything was done

So You would come.170

While Phase One text directly teaches on Spirit Baptism, e.g. "The Holy Spirit fills me up and I need Him everyday / For fire, faith and confidence, in knowing what to say",171 such detail also diminishes in subsequent years. However, the desire for corporate renewal of the Holy Spirit through revival remains a feature text after 1998. (explored below).172 Such findings suggest that while Hillsong considers their music to be evangelistic, using testimony to explain conversion and its benefits, the role of this music in teaching and discipling of the congregation is of lesser importance, as seen in the text.

Expected Transformation

Albrecht’s "Transcendental Efficacy" mode describes the preemptive, pragmatic prayer of Pentecostal worship text, sung in expectation of change. Evidence for his seven themes (or "Expected Transformations") may be seen in Hillsong songtext (see Table 5, below).

Table 5: Expected Transformations in Hillsong Text

PHASE ONE

PHASE TWO

PHASE THREE

Personal Development

18

16

9

Supernatural Empowerment

18

5

12

Evangelism

5

7

6

Prosperity

6

4

2

Presence in Suffering

4

6

24

Social Transformation

0

0

4

Revival

6

8

2

Personal Development

Personal Development is strongest in Phase One, with decreasing references in subsequent phases (see above), something which is of interest given the increase in numbers of song titles in later Phases. The role of worship and sung confession in personal development is, however, consistent across all three phases, as seen in "I Give You My Heart" (1996) which portrays our selfish desires being exchanged for God’s perfect will:

Lord I give You my heart

I give You my soul

I live for You alone

Every breath that I take

Every moment I’m awake

Lord have Your way in me.173

A dichotomy between soul (representative of humanity) and Spirit (representative of Christian redeemed nature) is consistent across all phases, with worship seen to facilitate surrender, allowing God to transform humanity’s sinful minds and hearts. Dependence upon God for personal development is seen in songs such as "Never Let Me Go" (2005) ("… Create in me a heart that’s pure / Replace in me what’s not of You"). Hillsong’s emphasis upon replacing negative thoughts with faith is discussed by Clifton,174 and seen in Morgan’s song "Faith" (2000):

Faith! I can move the mountains

I can do all things through Christ

Who strengthens me.175

The song "You Alone Are God" (2006) shows the use of both positivism and confession to reorient the self, submitted under God’s authority (In the light of Your salvation … I will find You’re all I need.)176

Supernatural Empowerment

In Luke 24, the disciples were encouraged to wait for "power from on high", culminating in the Pentecost event so central to Pentecostalism’s understanding of Christianity.177 "Supernatural Empowerment" is a theme seen mainly in Phase One, with both church and individuals understood to be recipients of supernatural power. Lyrics such as "… let Your healing power / Breathe life and make me whole" evidence a desire for miraculous healing during worship.178 The text of "Lord of All" (1997) reinforces this desire for "Supernatural Empowerment", with "… all my heartfelt dreams I put aside / To see Your Spirit move with power in my life".179 In contrast to HB text (in which the frequency of the word ‘power’ lessens after Phase Two), UB text (such as "Fall", 2001) shows greater openness to Supernatural Empowerment (I love to worship You, my Lord, And see Your Spirit fall in power).180

By Phase Three, the dominant signs of the power of the Spirit are "growth" and "unity" rather than miraculous healing – presumably as, due to the sheer size and momentum of the church, uniting Hillsong’s large congregation is considered impossible in human strength alone. Accordingly, appropriation of "Supernatural Empowerment" for "Social Transformation" begins to occur in songtext, as in "Kingdom Come" (2007):

The power of Your Name

In faith we will rise to be

Your hands and feet.181

Evangelism

As mentioned above, conversion testimonies are consistent in all phases of HMA text. For the mature Christian, sung expression of the testimony of salvation is used as a discipline—both of appropriate emotional response to God’s act upon the cross, and also as a way of retaining a hunger for evangelism within the local community. References to "Evangelism" as an "Expected Transformation" of worship is seen in the text. Expectancy for God to move in Evangelism as His people gather is seen predominantly during Phase One (e.g. "Love Can Do", 1997: "… hearts to save and a world to win / That’s what the love of God can do"; "Church on Fire", 1998;183 and 1996’s "Steppin’ Out").184 The metaphor of waiting fields of grain (from John 4) 185 is promoted in "Touching Heaven Changing Earth" (1998)186 and also in "You Take Me Higher" (2000):

He takes me through open doors

They open onto fields of white

He tells me to see and perceive

And to hear their cry.187

Reference to Evangelism also occurs in "Jesus The Same" (2004) (There's a fire that burns in our hearts / To see the lost return),188 and in "Take It All" (2006) (Searching the world / The lost will be found). 189 The expected transformation of Evangelism occurs consistently in HMA text in the study period.

Prosperity

The belief that God’s transformation includes material circumstances, resulting in a higher quality of living is known as "prosperity theology". This is strongly represented in the text until 2002, with lines such as, "God says yes and I know that I'm blessed".190 Hillsong’s progression towards prosperity doctrine is noted in Clifton’s ecclesiology (and in the Sydney’s media).191 The expectation of prosperity culminates in the text with the 2002 album Blessed

Blessed are those whose strength is in You

Whose hearts are set on our God

They will go from strength to strength

Until we see You face to face.192

Throughout this album, text both promotes and rejects the idea of material prosperity as an expected transformation of the gospel. The song "Better Than" states:

Better than getting what I say I need

Better than living the life that I want to

Better than the love anyone could give

Your love is.193

Interestingly, confessions of prosperity, (and the word "blessed") are absent in songs published between 2003 and 2006, but re-emerge twice in 2007 (including once in the UB song "Fire Fall Down").194 In this phase, the notion of prosperity is overwhelmed by the category "Presence in Suffering", as seen in Table 5 above.

Presence in Suffering

Prior to 2002 God’s presence in suffering occurs in the text only four times, an in every case the power of the Spirit triumphs over weakness, e.g. "And That My Soul Knows Very Well" (1996):

When mountains fall, I’ll stand

By the power of Your hand

And in Your heart of hearts I’ll dwell

That my soul knows very well.195

"My Heart Sings Praises" (1996) likewise shows suffering as a brief season, "… in my heart You are the power / In my night never-failing light".196

Phase Two introduces the idea of God’s Presence sustaining the Christian in suffering and trial. Whether through individual choices or global events, sin is presented as part of fallen humanity and experienced by all through widescale phenomena such as war, poverty and ecological damage. "Through It All" cites both joys and hardships in the Christian life:

You are forever in my life

You see me through the seasons

… I’m carried in everlasting arms

You’ll never let me go

Through it all.197

Metaphors and references to war, reflecting world events at that time, are seen in the Blessed album (2002). As Zschech says:

When I wrote the song, "My Hope", it was just after the horror of September 11th became reality. I really felt strongly to write a song that would help the Church in restoring certain ways of thinking, based on the truth of the word, not on feelings or circumstances.198

The song was sung by the congregation as a reminder of God’s presence in unjust circumstances.199 Not only is lyric important in attributing meaning to world events, but such changes in songtext in order to acknowledge suffering represent a maturing of Hillsong’s theological emphasis in response to contextual challenges to political and cultural assumptions in the years following 9/11. It may also reflect the ageing of the leadership. Theological emphasis moves towards an understanding of God’s presence sustaining the Christian even in suffering, rather than protecting them from suffering. While Hillsong text continues to promote God’s transformation of the material world of the believer, a more realistic transformation is expressed in the worship text with the expectation of God’s presence through all seasons and conditions of life.200

Revival

Pentecostal song includes an expectation for God’s normal activity to increase as the congregation worship and pray for manifestations of God’s Spirit. Desire for Spiritual renewal (termed "revival" in Hillsong lyrics) is consistent in the text. In "Touching Heaven Changing Earth" (1998), for instance, the Spirit is implored to "Send revival to us".201 This is also seen in the song "Hosanna" (2006)" (I see a near revival / Stirring as we pray and seek.)202 The word "revival", while present in all three phases, is seen to decrease in the text across the study period.

Social Transformation

Occurring only in the third phase, "Social Transformation" becomes an expected outcome of the worship experience. The emergence of the word "justice" in title track "My Hope" (2003) is the first instance of this Expected Transformation, ultimately (as seen above) of major importance in Hillsong Church’s worship.203 Songs such as "Tell The World" (2005),204 and UB song "Solution" present the idea of the Church’s responsibility to redress global inequality.205 This theological emphasis can also be seen as a response to secular music endeavors such as the Live Aid concerts by Bono and Bob Geldoff.206 The leadership of HMA continues this direction, particularly through the I Heart Revolution207 products released by Joel Houston and the Hillsong Foundation.

Conclusion

In answering the research questions, it must be noted while certain values and doctrines are constant across HMA recordings (such as testimony, and Christology), other aspects of Hillsong’s theological emphases have changed significantly over time. Key findings include the inclusion and development of concepts such as love, and theological changes in the purpose of worship—particularly the transition from "confessing" prosperity towards social transformation through the abolition of poverty. The Church’s increasing participation in the needs of the world through various mission endeavours is in direct contrast to the earlier, somewhat insular, Phase One faith in which emphasized the Church’s domination over the world. Corrections of over-emphases are found in the text, most notably (from 2002, subsequent to the 9/11 tragedy in the US) the acceptance of suffering. Increasing reference to worship in drawing the believer close to the Presence of God is found in the text following this date. The personal life of Darlene Zschech throughout Phase Two was of particular influence in the direction of the team in these years, influencing the inclusion of suffering in the text from 2002 and the desire to address issues of poverty and brokenness from 2003.

Influences upon HMA’s theological emphasis are varied, and include secular music celebrities such as Bono and Bob Geldoff. The team play a large role in the development of theological concepts, and Russell Fragar’s involvement as a key writer and staff member was particularly influential in the inclusion of Biblical content during Phase One (1996–1998). Though a writer from 1996, Reuben Morgan’s influence grows from 1998 through the remainder of the study period. Morgan’s influence generally reinforces certain key theological concepts. The most significant influence in HMA text to date occurred in 1999, with the decision to promote youth songs, and subsequent inclusion of writers Marty Sampson and Joel Houston in the team. Probably as a form of cross-promotion of UB product, their songs were increasingly sung in church meetings, and —due to the increasing age and popularity of the UB writers—contributed significantly to the HB repertoire. This bears particularly on promotion of "love" as a theme in the text.

HMA writers are more aware than the average congregation member of the theological and musical inadequacies of their songs, and often write to compensate for the perceived needs of the congregation, rather than just the wants or needs of the leadership. However, Hillsong’s leadership increasingly determined theological emphases in the songs, with Robert and Amanda Fergusson taking a role in shaping the text from 2000. In terms of theological emphasis, since 1998—whether as a marketing strategy, in order to be received positively by other denominations, or as a rejection of traditional Pentecostal understandings of the Spirit’s role in the individual’s life and within corporate church—Hillsong songs lost their unique emphasis upon the Holy Spirit, His person and place in the believer’s life. This loss is seen throughout the second phase, but become particularly clear in Phase Three. This leaves future room for songs to promote the role and person of the Holy Spirit, and place for more rounded Trinitarian theology in future releases.

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Ellington, Scott. "The Costly Loss of Testimony," Journal of Pentecostal Theology 16 (2000): 48-59.

Evans, Mark. Open up the Doors: Music in the Modern Church. London: Equinox, 2006.

-----. "Secularising the Sacred: The Impact of Geoff Bullock on Contemporary Congregational Song in Sydney, 1990-1999", Diss. Macquarie U., 2002.

Ewing, Paul. "Stronger Than". Best Friend. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2000.

Farias, Andres. "The Hillsong Machine." 10 October 2005. Christianity Today 7 May 2005. < http://www.christianitytoday.com/music/interviews/2005/hillsong-1005.html>.

Fee, Gordon. "The Holy Spirit and Worship in the Pauline Churches," Listening to the Spirits Is the Test. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Pub. Co, 2000.

Fergusson, Amanda. The Songs of Heaven. Castle Hill: Hillsong Church, 2006.

Fielding, Ben. "Kingdom Come". United We Stand. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2003.

----- and Crocker, Matt. "Fire Fall Down". United We Stand. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2007

Fielding, Ben. and Morgan, Reuben. "You Alone Are God", Mighty To Save. DVD. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2005

Fragar, Russell. "Holy Spirit Rain Down", Touching Heaven Changing Earth. VHS. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1997

-----. "So You Would Come". All Things Are Possible. VHS. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, Sydney, 1997

Fragar, Russell. "My Heart Sings Praises". God Is In The House. VHS. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1996.

Fragar, Russell, and Christine Fragar. "That's What the Love of God Can Do". All Things are Possible. VHS. Sydney: Hills Christian Life Centre, 1997

Fragar, Russell. "Can't Stop Talking". God Is In The House. VHS. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1996..

-----. "Joy in the Holy Ghost." God Is In The House. VHS. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1996.

-----. "Love You So Much", All Things Are Possible. VHS. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1997.

-----. "You Gave Me Love", Touching Heaven Changing Earth. VHS. Hills Christian Life Centre, Sydney, 1997.

-----. "Yes and Amen." Touching Heaven Changing Earth, VHS. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1998.

Fraser, Brooke. "Hosanna". Saviour King. DVD. Hillsong Publishing, Sydney 2007.

Hawn, C. Michael. "Congregational Singing from Down Under: Experiencing Hillsong's "Shout to the Lord." The Hymn, 57.2 (Spring 2006): 15 - 24.

Holy, Holy, Holy. Traditional, arr. Morgan, Reuben, and Peter King. Best Friend CD. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2001

Houston, Brian. Get a Life. Sydney: Maximised Leadership, 1999. In Clifton, "An Analysis of the Developing Ecclesiology" 11

Houston, Joel. "Everyday". Everyday. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1999.

-----. "My Best Friend". Best Friend. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2000.

-----."For This Cause". For This Cause. DVD. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2000.

-----."In the Mystery". Saviour King. DVD. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2007.

Jackson, Kevin. "Youth Movement Boosts Hillsong United Album to No.1." 3 June 2007. The Christian Post. 30 December 2009. <www.christianpost.com>.

Jameson, Fredric, "Postmodernism, or the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism," The Politics of Theory, New German Critique, 32 (Spring/Summer 1984):12

Jennings, Mark. " ‘Won't You Break Free?' an Ethnography of Music and the Divine-Human Encounter at an Australian Pentecostal Church." Culture and Religion, 9.2 (1 July 2008): 161 - 174

Jensen, Phillip. "Time to Grow Up." 2009. Sydney Anglicans.Net. 10 January 2010.

Lawless, Elaine J. "The Night I Got the Holy Ghost: Holy Ghost Narratives and the Pentecostal Conversion Process." Western Folklore 47.1 (Jan 1988): 1 - 19.

Levin, Tanya. People in Glass Houses: An Insiders Story of Life in and out of Hillsong. Melbourne: Black Inc, 2007.

Lim, D. "Spiritual Gifts." Systematic Theology: A Pentecostal Perspective. Ed. Horton, S.. Springfield: Logion, 1994.

Marty Sampson, "Forever", Best Friend. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2000.

-----. "Better Than." Blessed. DVD. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2002.

Matzerath, R. "Pentecostal Churches," New Catholic Encyclopedia, 2nd ed. (Detroit: Gale, 14 Sept. 2008), vol. 11.

McClung, Grant. "Pentecostals: The Sequel." Christianity Today 50.4 (April 2006).

McLaren, Brian. "An Open Letter to Songwriters." 2003, 22 June 2008. <http://www.brianmclaren.net/archives>.

McPherson, Steve. "Lord of All" God Is In The House. VHS. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1996.

Melton, Narelle. "A Pentecostal's Lament: Is There a Correspondence between the Form of the Biblical Lament Psalms and the Early Australian Pentecostal Practice of Prayer?", MTh Long Paper. Australian Catholic U. 2008.

Mesiti, Rebecca. "Fall". King of Majesty. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2001.

Moore, Gerard. "Appreciating Worship in All Its Variety." Australian Journal of Liturgy, 10.3 (2006): 79 - 90.

Morgan, Reuben "This Is My Desire". God Is In The House. VHS. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1996.

-----. "Faith". For This Cause. DVD. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2000.

-----. "What the Lord Has Done in Me". By Your Side. DVD. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1999.

-----. "You Are My Strength". Saviour King. DVD. Sydney: Hillsong Music Australia, 2007.

-----. "Your Love", All Things Are Possible. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1997.

-----. "Heaven". Everyday. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1999.

-----. "You Are Holy". All Things Are Possible. VHS. Sydney: Hills Christian Life Centre, 1997

-----. "Touching Heaven Changing Earth". VHS. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1998.

-----. "Through It All". Blessed. DVD. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2002.

Pecklers, F. Worship: New Century Theology. London: Continuum, 2003.

Percival, Phillip."The Big 3 Issues in Church Music: Lack of Understanding of the Place of Music in Church." 26 February 2007. Sydney Anglicans.net. 12 January 2010.

Riches, Tanya. Shout to the Lord! Music and Change at Hillsong: 1996 – 2007. Diss. Australian Catholic U., 2010.

Sampson, Marty, Matt Crocker, and Scott Ligertwood."What the World Will Never Take". More Than Life. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2004.

Sampson, Marty. "All Day". More Than Life. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1999.

Sampson, Marty. "Angels". Hope. DVD. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2003.

Sampson, Marty. "By Your Side". By Your Side, DVD Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1999.

Sampson, Marty."Saviour King". All Of The Above. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2007.

Shepherd, John. "Music and Male Hegemony." Music and Society: The Politics of Composition, Performance and Reception, Richard Leppert and Susan McClary (eds.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Steve McPherson. "Steppin' Out". God Is In The House. VHS. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1996.

Torrance, B. "Worship, Community and the Triune God of Grace." The Didsbury Lectures, Carlisle, UK: Paternoster, 1996.

Towns, Joe. "Where Australian Pentecostalism Came From" 29 March 2003, Talking Pentecostalism Blogspot. September 15 2008 <http://talkingpentecostalism.blogspot.com/2007/03/where-did-australian-pentecostalism.html>.

Turner, Steve. Imagine: A Vision for Christians in The Arts. Downer’s Grove: Inter-Varsity Press, 2001

Tyrangiel, Josh "Bono's Mission." 4th March 2002. Time.com. <http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,212721,00.html>.

Ward, Matthew. "Worship Music: 'I' Tunes?" 25th September 2007. Christianity Today. 7 May 2005. < http://www.christianitytoday.com>.

Webster, Miriam. "Dwelling Places". By Your Side. DVD. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1999.

-----. "Exceeding Joy" Hope. DVD. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2003.

www.hoperwanda.org, "100 Days of Hope" 2009, Hope Rwanda.org. 29 April 2009. <www.hoperwanda.org>.

Zinchini, Cassandra. "Taking Revival to the World: Australia's Largest and Most Influential Church Extends Its Reach to London, Paris and Kiev," Christianity Today 51.10 (October 2007 ): 1Exeter:Paternoster Press, 1996.

Zschech, Darlene and Fragar, Russell."God Is in the House". God Is In The House. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1996.

-----. "And That My Soul Knows Very Well". God Is In The House. DVD.

Zschech, Darlene, and Reuben Morgan, Reuben. "Blessed". Blessed. DVD. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2002.

Zschech, Darlene. "At the Cross." Mighty To Save. DVD. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2006.

-----. "I Know It." All Things Are Possible. CD. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1997.

-----. "Let the Peace of God Reign." God Is In The House. DVD. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1996.

-----. "My Hope", Hope. DVD. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2003

-----. "Sing of Your Great Love". By Your Side. DVD. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1998.

-----. "You". You Are My World. DVD. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2000.

-----. Extravagant Worship. Castle Hill: Check Music Ministries, 2001.

Zwartz, Barney. "The Spirit in Australia." Rev. of Bouma, Gary. 'Australian Soul: Religion and Spirituality in the 21st Century'. The Age [Melbourne] February 24, 2007, sec. Religion: 76-77.

Endnotes:

1. "Our History." 2008. Hillsong Music Australia. 29th Sept 2008. <www.hillsong.com>.

2. "Senior Pastors and Eldership". 2009. My Hillsong.com. May 9 2009. <http://www.myhillsong.com/senior-pastors-eldership>.

3. Formerly known as the Australian Assemblies of God, usually shortened to "AOG".

4. "Senior Pastors and Eldership"

5. Daly, Jess, and Helen Grasswill. "Behind the Hillsong Phenomenon." August 1, 2005. ABC News Online [Sydney]. 25th September 2008. <http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200508/s1427232.htm>.

6. Hawn "Congregational Singing Down Under" 15

7. Hawn "Congregational Singing Down Under" 15

8. D.E. Albrecht, ‘Rites in the Spirit’: A Ritual Approach to Pentecostal/Charismatic Spirituality, Journal of Pentecostal Theology Studies, vol. 17 (Sheffield Academic Press, 1999).

9. Gerard Moore, "Appreciating Worship in All Its Variety." Australian Journal of Liturgy 10.3 (2006), 80

10. Moore. "Appreciating Worship in All Its Variety", 80

11. Moore. "Appreciating Worship in All Its Variety", 80

12. ---. "Appreciating Worship in All Its Variety", 89

13. Moore. "Appreciating Worship in All Its Variety", 88

14. Moore. "Appreciating Worship in All Its Variety", 81

15. "…In all this there is the problem of balance, yet a balance between all three is most probably unattainable and even unwanted. There can only be one primary lens, nevertheless an integrated approach is necessary" in Moore. "Appreciating Worship in All Its Variety", 88

16. Steve Turner, Imagine: A Vision for Christians in The Arts. Downer’s Grove: Inter-Varsity Press, 2001.

17. F. Pecklers, Worship: New Century Theology. London: Continuum, 2003: 164.

18. Marva Dawn, A Royal Waste of Time: The Splendor of Worshipping God and Being Church for the World (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing, 1999).

19. Marva Dawn, "Worship for Postmodern Times," Lutheran Theological Journal 42.2 (August 2008).

20. Evans. Open up the Doors, 39

21. Scott Ellington, "The Costly Loss of Testimony," Journal of Pentecostal Theology 16 (2000): 48-59.

22. Fergusson, The Songs of Heaven, 82

23. Fergusson, The Songs of Heaven, 40

24. Andree Farias, "The Hillsong Machine," 10 October 2005. Christianity Today 7 May 2005. < http://www.christianitytoday.com/music/interviews/2005/hillsong-1005.html>.

25. Amanda Fergusson, The Songs of Heaven. Castle Hill: Hillsong Church, 2006, 203

26. Zschech, Extravagant Worship, 148

27. Peter Althouse, "Toward a Theological Understanding of the Pentecostal Appeal to Experience," Journal of Ecumenical Studies, 38.4 (Fall 2001).

28. For a more indepth overview of Hillsong’s services and annual calendar, see Tanya Riches, ‘Shout to the Lord! Music and Change at Hillsong: 1996 – 2007’, unpubl. MPhil. diss., Australian Catholic University, 2010.

29. Tanya Riches, ‘Hillsong’s Shout’, 103.

30. Darlene Zschech, Extravagant Worship. Castle Hill: Check Music Ministries, 2001, 44.

31. Hawn "Congregational Singing Down Under", 17.

32. The Australian Christian Churches "…currently claims to have more than 1000 affiliated churches in Australia with over 160,000 constituents 'making it the largest Pentecostal movement in Australia'" in Connell, "Hillsong: A Mega church in the Sydney Suburbs." At the time of writing, this had grown to over 210,000.

33. Kevin Jackson, "Youth Movement Boosts Hillsong United Album to No.1". The Christian Post, December 30 2009. <www.christianpost.com>.

34. Shane Jack Clifton, ‘An Analysis of the Developing Ecclesiology of the Assemblies of God in Australia’, unpubl. PhD Diss., Australian Catholic University, 2005.

35. Mark Evans, "Secularising the Sacred: The Impact of Geoff Bullock on Contemporary Congregational Song in Sydney, 1990-1999 ", Macquarie University, 2002.

36. Fergusson, The Songs of Heaven.

37. Evans. "Secularising the Sacred", 117.

38. J Torrance, Worship, Community and the Triune God of Grace, The Didsbury Lectures. Exeter:Paternoster Press, 1996, 3.

39. "But I tell you the truth: It is for your good that I am going away. Unless I go away, the Counsellor will not come to you; but if I go, I will send him to you." John 16: 7 "The Holy Bible," New International Version.

40. Gordon Fee, "The Holy Spirit and Worship in the Pauline Churches " Listening to the Spirits Is the Test. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Pub. Co, 2000.

41. D. Lim, "Spiritual Gifts." in Stanley Horton (ed.), Systematic Theology: A Pentecostal Perspective. Springfield: Logion, 1994.

42. Grant McClung, "Pentecostals: The Sequel," Christianity Today 50.4 (April 2006).

43. Barry Chant, "Retuning the Church." The Messenger 39.1 (March 2001), 1.

44. Evans. Open up the Doors 138.

45. Evans. Open up the Doors 139.

46. "… "soft" rock... is based traditionally on the sentimentality of the ballad form, which is infused, to a greater or lesser extend, with elements drawn from mainstream rock music. 'Soft' rock speaks, in various ways, ... to the young girl or housewife... to the young and vulnerable male" in John Shepherd, "Music and Male Hegemony," Music and Society: The Politics of Composition, Performance and Reception, Richard Leppert, and Susan McClary (eds.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

47. Judith Butler, Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Routledge, 1990.

48. Acts 2:17 "The Holy Bible", New International Version.

49. Clifton, "An Analysis of the Developing Ecclesiology", 13.

50. Chant, ‘Retuning The Church’.

51. As not addressed directly in this paper, issues of male isolation would be a great asset in future research.

52. Levin, People in Glass Houses, 173.

53. Phillip Percival, "The Big 3 Issues in Church Music: Lack of Understanding of the Place of Music in Church", 26 February 2007. Sydney Anglicans.net. accessed 12 January 2010. <http://your.sydneyanglicans.net/insight/the_big_3_issues_in_church_music>.

54. Brian McLaren, "An Open Letter to Songwriters." 2003. Brian McLaren.com 22 June 2008. <http://www.brianmclaren.net/archives>.

55. Matthew Ward, "Worship Music: 'I' Tunes? " 25th September 2007. Christianity Today. 7 May 2005. < http://www.christianitytoday.com>.

56. Evans, Open up the Doors, 137.

57. Evans, Open up the Doors, 136.

58. Percival, ‘The Big 3 Issues in Church Music’.

59. Clifton, "An Analysis of the Developing Ecclesiology", 19.

60. Albrecht, Rites in the Spirit, 231.

61. Althouse, "Toward a Theological Understanding of the Pentecostal Appeal to Experience."

62. Elaine J. Lawless, "The Night I Got the Holy Ghost: Holy Ghost Narratives and the Pentecostal Conversion Process". Western Folklore 47.1 (Jan 1988), 1.

63. Mark Jennings, "'Won't You Break Free?' an Ethnography of Music and the Divine-Human Encounter at an Australian Pentecostal Church " Culture and Religion 9.2 (1 July 2008)

64. Anderson, "An Introduction to Pentecostalism".

65. Clifton, "An Analysis of the Developing Ecclesiology", 94.

66. Evans, Open Up The Doors, 114.

67. Moore, ‘Appreciating Worship in All It’s Variety’, 89.

68. Albrecht, Rites in the Spirit, 11-12.

69. Albrecht, Rites in the Spirit, 179.

70. Albrecht, Rites in the Spirit, 81.

71. Albrecht, Rites in the Spirit, 181.

72. Albrecht, Rites in the Spirit, 182.

73. Albrecht, Rites in the Spirit, 182.

74. Albrecht, Rites in the Spirit, 182.

75. Albrecht, Rites in the Spirit, 184.

76. Albrecht, Rites in the Spirit, 184–85.

77. Narelle Melton, "A Pentecostal's Lament: Is There a Correspondence between the Form of the Biblical Lament Psalms and the Early Australian Pentecostal Practice of Prayer?," MTh Long Paper. Australian Catholic U. 2008, 2.

78. Albrecht, Rites in the Spirit, 185.

79. Albrecht, Rites in the Spirit, 186.

80. Evans, Open up the Doors, 11; 125.

81. Albrecht, Rites in the Spirit, 187.

82. Moore. "Appreciating Worship in All Its Variety", 86.

83. Albrecht, Rites in the Spirit, 179.

84. Evans, Open up the Doors, 73.

85. Marva J. Dawn, Reaching out without Dumbing Down: A Theology of Worship for This Urgent Time. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995, 188.

86. While "repentance" is the accepted Christian term for such change, Hillsong members consider sung worship as a type of confession. The word repentance however is rarely used, and is usually associated with conversion.

87. James S Bielo, "Walking in the Spirit of Blood: Moral Identity among Born-Again Christians," Ethnology 43.3 (Summer 2004), 271.

88. Evans, Open Up the Doors, 114.

89. Clifton’s definition relates to revival and revivalism, however as the origin of the phenomena is difficult to distinguish, these terms are measured under the one Transcendental Efficacy termed ‘revival’. Clifton, "An Analysis of the Developing Ecclesiology", 86.

90. Clifton, "An Analysis of the Developing Ecclesiology", 94.

91. Clifton, "An Analysis of the Developing Ecclesiology", 11.

92. R. Matzerath, "Pentecostal Churches," New Catholic Encyclopedia, 2nd ed. (Detroit: Gale, 14 Sept. 2008), vol. 11.

93. Anderson. An Introduction to Pentecostalism.

94. Silvia Giagnoni, ‘Christian Rock Goes Mainstream: Youth Culture, Politics and Popular Music in the US’,. Diss. Florida Atlantic U. 2007

95. Chant. "Retuning the Church."

96. Power, "The Rise and Rise of the Pentecostals."

97. Cassandra Zinchini, "Taking Revival to the World: Australia's Largest and Most Influential Church Extends Its Reach to London, Paris and Kiev," Christianity Today 51.10 (October 2007 ), 1.

98. Barney Zwartz, "The Spirit in Australia." Review of Bouma, Gary. 'Australian Soul: Religion and Spirituality in the 21st Century'. The Age [Melbourne] February 24, 2007, sec. Religion, 76-77.

99. Clifton, "An Analysis of the Developing Ecclesiology", 201.

100. Joe Towns, "Where Australian Pentecostalism Came From" 29 March 2003, Talking Pentecostalism Blogspot. September 15 2008 <http://talkingpentecostalism.blogspot.com/2007/03/where-did-australian-pentecostalism.html>.

101. Paul proclaims to young church leader, Timothy, "…But if we have food and clothing, we will be content with that. People who want to get rich fall into temptation and a trap and into many foolish and harmful desires that plunge men into ruin and destruction. For the love of money is a root of all kinds of evil. Some people, eager for money, have wandered from the faith and pierced themselves with many grief". In Timothy 6:8-10 "The Holy Bible," New International Version.

102. Clifton, "An Analysis of the Developing Ecclesiology", 214.

103. Jesus as Saviour is examined in the section on Address, and Spirit Baptism is included in the section on testimony.

104. Clifton, "An Analysis of the Developing Ecclesiology", 216.

105. Clifton, "An Analysis of the Developing Ecclesiology", 215.

106. Anderson, An Introduction to Pentecostalism.

107. Dawn, Reaching out without Dumbing Down, 39.

108. See Evans, ‘Methodology’, p.114.

109. See p.48 for explanation of song sections.

110. David Allan, "An Essay on Popular Music in Advertising: The Bankruptcy of Culture or the Marriage of Art and Commerce?," Advertising & Society Review, 6.1. (2005).

111. See p.61 for explanation of these terms.

112. Fergusson, Songs of Heaven, 69 – 137.

113. Steve McPherson, "Steppin' Out". God Is In The House. VHS. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1996.

114. Darlene Zschech, "I Know It." All Things Are Possible. CD. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1997.

115. Joel Houston, "Everyday". Everyday. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1999.

116. Reuben Morgan, "Heaven". Everyday. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1999.

117. Paul Ewing, "Stronger Than". Best Friend. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2000.

118. Marty Sampson"All Day". More Than Life. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1999.

119. See p.10.

120. Holy, Holy, Holy. Traditional Hymn. Arr. Reuben Morgan, and Peter King. Best Friend CD. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2001.

121. Russell Fragar, "Joy in the Holy Ghost." God Is In The House. VHS. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1996.

122. Russell Fragar, "Can't Stop Talking". God Is In The House. VHS. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1996..

123. Raymond Badham, "I Feel Like I'm Falling". By Your Side. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1999.

124. Reuben Morgan, "You Are My Strength". Saviour King. DVD. Sydney: Hillsong Music Australia, 2007.

125. Marty Sampson, "Angels". Hope. DVD. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2003.

126. "… Pastiche is, like parody, the imitation of a peculiar mask, speech in a dead language: but it is a neutral practice of such mimicry, without any of parody’s ulterior motives, amputated of the satiric impulse, devoid of laughter and of any conviction that alongside the abnormal tongue you have momentarily borrowed, some healthy linguistic normality still exists". Fredric Jameson, "Postmodernism, or the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism," The Politics of Theory, New German Critique 32 (Spring/Summer 1984):12

127. Jameson, "Postmodernism", 65.

128. Joel Houston, "In the Mystery". Saviour King. DVD. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2007.

129. Songs addressed to God as ‘Saviour King’ or ‘Spirit of God’ may fall into multiple categories depending on the perceived intention of the author and the context.

130. As seen in "Supernatural Empowerment" and "Revival" categories, see Expected Transformations.

131. Darlene Zschech, "Let the Peace of God Reign." God Is In The House. DVD. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1996.

132. Russell Fragar, "Holy Spirit Rain Down", Touching Heaven Changing Earth. VHS. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1997.

133. The Holy Bible, New International Version. 2nd Ed. Colarado Springs: Biblica, 1984.

134. Darlene Zschech, "You". You Are My World. DVD. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2000.

135. Ben Fielding and Crocker, Matt. "Fire Fall Down". United We Stand. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2007.

136. Marty Sampson, "Saviour King". All Of The Above. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2007.

137. Leader of the Sydney Anglican movement, Phillip Jensen publicly criticises Pentecostalism and particularly tongues, "To build a church and its reputation on the Pentecostal/Charismatic experience is an infantile failure to understand the work of the Spirit or the work of Christ in building his church through our loving service of each other." In Jensen, Phillip. "Time to Grow Up." 2009. Sydney Anglicans.Net. 10 January 2010. <http://www.sydneyanglicans.net/ministry/theology/time_to_grow_up>.

138. Matt 22:37 New International Version, as quoted in Zschech, Extravagant Worship, 14.

139. Russell Fragar and Christine Fragar. "That's What the Love of God Can Do". All Things are Possible. VHS. Sydney: Hills Christian Life Centre, 1997.

140. Russell Fragar, "That's What the Love of God Can Do".

141. Reuben Morgan, "Your Love", All Things Are Possible. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1997.

142. Reuben Morgan, "This Is My Desire". God Is In The House. VHS. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1996.

143. Fragar, "My Heart Sings Praises".

144. Russell Fragar, "Love You So Much", All Things Are Possible. VHS. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1997.

145. Barber, F. Louis. "Wesley's Philosophy." The Biblical World 54.2 (Mar 1920), 142.

146. Russell Fragar, "You Gave Me Love", Touching Heaven Changing Earth. VHS. Hills Christian Life Centre, Sydney, 1997.

147. Marty Sampson, "Forever", Best Friend. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2000.

148. Miriam Webster, "Dwelling Places". By Your Side. DVD. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1999.

149. Reuben Morgan, "You Are Holy". All Things Are Possible. VHS. Sydney: Hills Christian Life Centre, 1997.

150. Joel Houston, "My Best Friend". Best Friend. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2000.

151. Joel Houston, "For This Cause". For This Cause. DVD. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2000.

152. Raymond Badham, "I Feel Like I'm Falling". By Your Side. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1999.

153. Marty Sampson, "By Your Side". By Your Side, DVD Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1999.

154. "…We love because he first loved us" in "The Holy Bible", New International Version.

155. Darlene Zschech, "At the Cross." Mighty To Save. DVD. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2006.

156. Sampson, "Saviour King".

157. "…She [Zschech] is an ambassador for the work of Compassion International, and is committed wholeheartedly to relieving human suffering in any possible way" www.hoperwanda.org, "100 Days of Hope" 2009, Hope Rwanda.org. 29 April 2009. <www.hoperwanda.org>.

158. Darlene Zschech, "My Hope", Hope. DVD. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2003.

159. "100 Days of Hope" 2009.

160. Houston, "Solution".

161. Two popular scriptures for Pentecostals are Revelation 12:11 ‘…They overcame him by the blood of the Lamb and by the word of their testimony; they did not love their lives so much as to shrink from death’, "The Holy Bible", New International Version.and Galatians 3:28 ‘…There is neither Jew nor Greek, slave nor free, male nor female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus’. "The Holy Bible", New International Version.

162. Riches, "Shout to the Lord!", 39.

163. Riches, "Shout to the Lord!", 84.

164. Darlene Zschech and Russell Fragar, "God Is in the House". God Is In The House. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1996.

165. Darlene Zschech, "Sing of Your Great Love". By Your Side. DVD. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1998.

166. Miriam Webster, "Exceeding Joy" Hope. DVD. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2003.

167. Reuben Morgan, "What the Lord Has Done in Me". By Your Side. DVD. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1999.

168. Riches, "Shout to the Lord!", 55.

169. Albrecht. Rites in the Spirit, 169.

170. "The Holy Bible", New International Version.

171. Russell Fragar, "So You Would Come". All Things Are Possible. VHS. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, Sydney, 1997

172. Fragar, "Joy in the Holy Ghost".

173. Tanya Riches, "Shout to the Lord!", 88.

174. Morgan, "This Is My Desire".

175. In order to example Houston’s emphasis upon overcoming negativity Clifton lists the chapters of Brian Houston, Get a Life. Sydney: Maximised Leadership, 1999. In Clifton, "An Analysis of the Developing Ecclesiology", 11.

176. Reuben Morgan, "Faith". For This Cause. DVD. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2000.

177. Ben Fielding and Reuben Morgan, "You Alone Are God", Mighty To Save. DVD. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2005.

178. "I am going to send you what my Father has promised; but stay in the city until you have been clothed with power from on high." Luke 24:49 "The Holy Bible", New International Version.

179. Steve McPherson, "Lord of All", God Is In The House. VHS. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1996.

180. Rebecca Mesiti, "Fall". King of Majesty. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2001.

181. Ben Fielding, "Kingdom Come". United We Stand. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2003.

182. Russell Fragar and Christine Fragar. "That's What the Love of God Can Do".

183. Reuben Morgan, "Touching Heaven Changing Earth". VHS. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1998.

184. McPherson, "Steppin' Out".

185. "…Do you not say, 'Four months more and then the harvest'? I tell you, open your eyes and look at the fields! They are ripe for harvest." John 4:35 in "The Holy Bible", New International Version.

186. Reuben Morgan, "Touching Heaven Changing Earth".

187. Raymond Badham, "You Take Me Higher". Everyday. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1999.

188. Raymond Badham, "Jesus the Same". For All You've Done. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2004.

189. Marty Sampson, Matt Crocker, and Scott Ligertwood, "What the World Will Never Take". More Than Life. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2004.

190. Russell Fragar, "Yes and Amen." Touching Heaven Changing Earth. VHS. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1998.

191. Clifton, "An Analysis of the Developing Ecclesiology", 214

192. Darlene Zschech and Reuben Morgan. "Blessed". Blessed. DVD. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2002.

193. Marty Sampson. "Better Than." Blessed. DVD. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2002.

194. Fields and Crocker, "Fire Fall Down".

195. Darlene Zschech and Russell Fragar. "And That My Soul Knows Very Well". God Is In The House. DVD. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 1996.

196. Fragar, "My Heart Sings Praises".

197. Reuben Morgan, "Through It All". Blessed. DVD. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2002.

198. Fergusson, "Songs of Heaven", 76

199. Zschech, "You Are".

200. Further investigation would be welcome into songs that acknowledge the absence of the presence of God to the physical senses, and the emotion of loneliness experienced by many in the Western world.

201. Morgan, "Touching Heaven Changing Earth".

202. Brooke Fraser, "Hosanna". Saviour King. DVD. Hillsong Publishing, Sydney, 2007.

203. Tanya Riches, "Shout to the Lord!", 78.

204. Jonathon Douglass, "Tell the World". Look To You. Sydney: Hillsong Publishing, 2005.

205. Tanya Riches, "Shout to the Lord!", 84.

206. Josh Tyrangiel, "Bono's Mission." 4th March 2002. Time.com. <http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,212721,00.html>.

207. "I-Heart", 2009. Hillsong.com. 21 January 2010. <www.hillsong.com>.

208. "…Hillsong Aid and Development is a growing focus of Hillsong Foundation". In "One for Another". 2009. Hillsong.com. 21 January 2010. <www.hillsong.com>.